During the early stages of cloud computing, the primary mover was the virtual machine. Many other hardware virtualization methods sprang.
- One of the most important open source project called Xen project had been started with the expectation to power some of the largest clouds in production today. Amazon web services, Aliyun, Rackspace Public Cloud and many other hosting services use Xen Project software. It is also integrated with multiple cloud orchestration projects like OpenStack.
- KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) was introduced as a virtualization infrastructure for the Linux kernel that turns into a hypervisor.
- Microsoft Hyper-V on Windows was introduced to provide software infrastructure and basic management tools to create and manage a virtualized server computing environment.