What is Data?

Data is any piece of information or observation about any object or person organised into variables to make the processing easier. Variable are the basic building blocks that hold information about any observation about the particular object.

Weight Shape Type
1 170 Circular Apple
2 145 Bumpy Orange
3 165 Circular Apple

In this table, rows are the observations and each column is the variables containing information about the object that is fruit.

Variable can be of two types:

  • Categorical Variable: These are the variable that takes category or label values from the finite set of values. In the above table, you can already guess its the " Shape " variable that is categorical as it can only hold two values Circular/Bumpy.
  • Qualitative Variable: These are the variable that takes numerical values and represent some kind of measurement. In the above table, "Weight" is the qualitative value that contains the numerical value of measurements.