751.36 Driven Piles
Contents
 1 751.36.1 General
 2 751.36.2 Steel Pile
 3 751.36.3 Pile Point Reinforcement
 4 751.36.4 Anchorage of Piles for Seismic Categories B, C and D
 5 751.36.5 Design Procedure
 5.1 751.36.5.1 Design Procedure Outline
 5.2 751.36.5.2 Structural Resistance Factor (ϕ_{c} and ϕ_{f}) for Strength Limit State
 5.3 751.36.5.3 Geotechnical Resistance Factor (ϕ_{stat}) and Driving Resistance Factor (ϕ_{dyn})
 5.4 751.36.5.4 Downdrag and Losses to Geotechnical Resistance due to Scour and Liquefaction
 5.5 751.36.5.5 Preliminary Structural Nominal Axial Design Capacity (PNDC) of an individual pile
 5.6 751.36.5.6 Preliminary Factored Axial Design Capacity (PFDC) of an Individual Pile
 5.7 751.36.5.7 Design Values for Steel Pile
 5.8 751.36.5.8 Additional Provisions for Pile Cap Footings
 5.9 751.36.5.9 Estimate Pile Length and Check Pile Capacity
 5.10 751.36.5.10 Pile Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance
 5.11 751.36.5.11 Check Pile Drivability
 5.12 751.36.5.12 Information to be Included on the Plans
751.36.1 General
Accuracy Required
All capacities shall be taken to the nearest 1 (one) kip, loads shown on plans.
751.36.1.1 Maximum Specified Pile Lengths
Structural Steel Pile No Limit CastInPlace (CIP) (Welded or Seamless Steel Shell (Pipe)) Pile No Limit
It is not advisable to design pile deeper than borings. If longer pile depth is required to meet design requirements, then request Geotechnical Section to provide deeper borings or increase the number of piles which will reduce load per pile as well as required pile length.
751.36.1.2 Probe Pile
Asset Management 
Report 2009 
See also: Research Publications 
Length shall be estimated pile length + 10’.
When probe piles are specified to be driveninplace, they shall not be included in the number of piles indicated in the “FOUNDATION DATA” Table.
751.36.1.3 Static Load Test Pile
When Static Load Test Pile is specified, the nominal axial compressive resistance value shall be determined by an actual static load test.
For preboring for piles, see Sec 702.
751.36.1.4 Preliminary Geotechnical Report Information
The foundation can be more economically designed with increased geotechnical information about the specific project site.
Soil information should be reviewed for rock or refusal elevations. Auger hole information and rock or refusal data are sufficient for piles founded on rock material to indicate length of piling estimated. Standard Penetration Test information is especially desirable at each bent if friction piles are utilized or the depth of rock exceeds approximately 60 feet.
751.36.1.5 Geotechnical Redundancy
Pile Nonredundancy (20 percent resistance factor reduction)
Conventional bridge pile foundations:
For pile cap footings where a small pile group is defined as less than 5 piles, reduce pile geotechnical and structural resistance factors shown in LRFD Table 10.5.5.2.31.
For pile cap bents, the small pile group definition of less than 5 piles is debatable in terms of nonredundancy and applying a resistance factor reduction. The notion of a bridge collapse or a pile cap bent failure directly related to the failure of a single pile or due to its pile arrangement in this instance, or ignoring the strength contribution of the superstructure via diaphragms in some cases would seem to challenge applying the small pile group concept to pile bent systems as developed in NCHRP 508 and alluded to in the LRFD commentary. In terms of reliability, application of this factor could be utilized to account for exposed piling subject to indeterminable scour, erosion, debris loading or vehicular impact loadings as an increased factor of safety.
For integral and nonintegral end bent cap piles, the reduction factor need not be considered for less than 5 piles due to the studied infrequency of abutment structural failures (NCHRP 458, p. 6) and statewide satisfactory historical performance.
For intermediate bent cap piles, the reduction factor need not be considered for less than 5 piles under normal design conditions. It may be considered for unaccountable loading conditions that may be outside the scope of accountable strength or extreme event limit state loading and is specific to a bridge site and application and is therefore utilized at the discretion of the Structural Project Manager or Structural Liaison Engineer. Further, if applied, it shall be utilized for determining pile length if applicable, lateral and horizontal geotechnical and structural resistances. Alternatively, a minimum of 5 piles may save consideration and cost.
Any substructure with a pile foundation can be checked for structural redundancy if necessary by performing structural analyses considering the hypothetical transference of loads to presumed surviving members of a substructure like columns or piles (load shedding). This direct analysis procedure could be performed in place of using a reduction factor for other than pile cap footings.
For major bridges, the application of pile redundancy may take a stricter direction. See the Structural Project Manager or Structural Liaison Engineer.
751.36.1.6 Waterjetting
Commentary on Waterjetting 
Waterjetting is a method available to contractors to aid in driving piles. If the drivability analysis indicates difficulty driving piles then it can be assumed that the contractor may use waterjetting to aid in driving the piles. The Commentary on Waterjetting discusses items to consider when there is a possibility of the use of waterjetting.
751.36.1.7 Restrike
In general, designers should NOT require restrikes unless the Geotechnical Section requires restrike because it delays construction and makes it harder for contractors to estimate pile driving time on site. The Geotechnical Section shall show on borings data a statement indicating either "No Restrike Recommended" or "Restrike Recommended", with requirements.
751.36.2 Steel Pile
751.36.2.1 Material Properties
751.36.2.1.1 Structural Steel HP Pile
Structural Steel HP piling shall be ASTM A709 Grade 50S (fy = 50 ksi) steel.
751.36.2.1.2 CastInPlace (CIP) Pile
Welded or Seamless steel shell (Pipe) for CIP piling shall be ASTM 252 Grade 3
 (f_{y} = 45 ksi, E_{s} = 29,000 ksi)
Concrete
Class B  1 Concrete (Substructure)  f'_{c}= 4.0 ksi 
Modulus of elasticity,
Where:
 f'_{c} in ksi
 w_{c} = unit weight of nonreinforced concrete = 0.145 kcf
 K_{1} = correction factor for source of aggregate
 = 1.0 unless determined by physical testing
Reinforcing Steel
Minimum yield strength,  f_{y} = 60.0 ksi  
Steel modulus of elasticity,  E_{s} = 29000 ksi 
751.36.2.2 Steel Pile Type
Avoid multiple sizes and/or types of pilings on typical bridges (5 spans or less). Also using same size and type of pile on project helps with galvanizing.
There are two types of piles generally used by MoDOT. They are structural steel HP pile and closeended pipe pile (castinplace, CIP). Open ended pipe pile (castinplace, CIP) can also be used. Structural steel piling are generally referred to as HP piling and two different standard AISC shapes are typically utilized: HP12 x 53 and HP14 x 73. Pipe piling are generally referred to as castinplace or CIP piling because concrete is poured and cast in steel shells which are driven first or predriven.
751.36.2.2.1 Structural Steel HP Pile
Section  Area  

HP 12 x 53  15.5 sq. in.  
HP 14 x 73  21.4 sq. in. 
The HP 12 x 53 section should generally be used unless a heavier section produces a more economical design or required by a Drivability Analysis.
751.36.2.2.2 CastInPlace (CIP) Pile
Outside Diameter  Minimum Nominal Wall Thickness (By Design) 
Common Available Nominal Wall Thicknesses 

14 inch  1/2”  1/2” and 5/8”^{2} 
16 inch  1/2”  1/2” and 5/8”^{2} 
20 inch^{1}  1/2”  1/2” and 5/8” 
24 inch^{1}  1/2”  1/2”, 5/8” and 3/4” 
^{1} Use when required to meet KL/r ratio or when smaller diameter CIP do not meet design.  
^{2} 5/8” wall thickness is less commonly available than the smaller wall thicknesses of pipe pile. 
Use minimum nominal wall thickness which is preferred. When this wall thickness is inadequate for structural strength or for driving (drivability), then a thicker wall shall be used. Specify the required wall thickness on the plan details. The contractor shall determine the pile wall thickness required to avoid damage during driving or after adjacent piles have been driven, but not less than the minimum specified.
Minimum tip elevation must be shown on plans. Criteria for minimum tip elevation shall also be shown. The following information shall be included on the plans:
 “Minimum Tip Elevation is required _______________.” Reason must be completed by designer such as:
 for lateral stability
 for required tension or uplift pile capacity
 to penetrate anticipated soft geotechnical layers
 for scour*
 to minimize postconstruction settlements
 for minimum embedment into natural ground
 *For scour, estimated maximum scour depth (elevation) must be shown on plans.
 Guidance Note: Show maximum of total scour depths estimated for multiple return periods in years from Preliminary design which should be given on the Design Layout. Show the controlling return period (e.g. 100, 200, 500). If return periods are different for different bents, add a new line in foundation data table.
751.36.3 Pile Point Reinforcement
Pile point reinforcement is also known as a pile tip (e.g., pile shoe or pile toe attachments).
751.36.3.1 Structural Steel HP Pile
Pile point reinforcement shall be required for all HP piles required to be driven to bear on rock regardless of pile strength used for design loadings or geomaterial (soils with or without gravel or cobbles) to be penetrated. Pile point reinforcement shall be manufactured in one piece of cast steel. Manufactured pile point reinforcements are available in various shapes and styles as shown in FHWANHI16010, Figure 165.
751.36.3.2 CastInPlace (CIP) Pile
For CIP piles, use pile point reinforcement if boulders or cobbles or dense gravel are anticipated.
Geotechnical Section shall recommend when pile point reinforcement is needed and type of pile point reinforcement on the Foundation Investigation Geotechnical Report.
For Closed Ended CastInPlace Concrete Pile (CECIP)
Two types are available.
 1. “Cruciform” type should be used as recommended and for hard driving into soft rock, weathered rock, and shales. It will continue to develop end bearing resistance while driving since an exposed flat closure plate is included with this point type. The closure plate acts to distribute load to the pile cross sectional area.
 2. “Conical” type should be used as recommended and when there is harder than typical driving conditions, for example hard driving through difficult soils like heavily cobblestoned, very gravelly, densely layered soils. Severely obstructed driving can cause CIP piles with conical points to deflect. Conical pile points are always the more expensive option.
For Open Ended CastInPlace Concrete Pile (OECIP)
One type is available.
 “Open Ended Cutting Shoe” type should be used as recommended and when protection of the pipe end during driving could be a concern. It is also useful if uneven bearing is anticipated since a reinforced tip can redistribute load and lessen point loading concerns.
 Open ended piles are not recommended for bearing on hard rock since this situation could create inefficient point loading that could be structurally damaging.
When Geotechnical Section indicates that pile point reinforcement is needed on the boring log, then the recommended pile point reinforcement type shall be shown on the plan details. Generally this information is also shown on the Design layout.
For pile point reinforcement detail, see
Bridge Standard Drawings 
Pile 
751.36.4 Anchorage of Piles for Seismic Categories B, C and D
751.36.4.1 Structural Steel HP Pile  Details
[MS Cell]
Use standard seismic anchorage detail for all HP pile sizes. Modify detail (bolt size, no. of bolts, angle size) if seismic and geotechnical analyses requires increased uplift resistance. Follow AASHTO 17th Ed. LFD or AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design (SGS).
751.36.4.2 CastInPlace (CIP) Pile  Details
Bridge Standard Drawings 
Pile 
751.36.5 Design Procedure
 Structural Analysis
 Geotechnical Analysis
 Drivability Analysis
751.36.5.1 Design Procedure Outline
 Determine foundation load effects from the superstructure and substructure for Service, Strength and Extreme Event Limit States.
 If applicable, determine scour depths, liquefaction information and pile design unbraced length information.
 Determine if downdrag loadings should be considered.
 Select preliminary pile size and pile layout.
 Perform a Static Pile Soil Interaction Analysis. Estimate Pile Length and pile capacity.
 Based on pile type and material, determine Resistance Factors for Structural Strength ( and ).
 Determine:
 Maximum axial load effects at toe of a single pile
 Maximum combined axial & flexural load effects of a single pile
 Maximum shear load effect for a single pile
 Uplift pile reactions
 Determine Nominal and Factored Structural Resistance for single pile
 Determine Structural Axial Compression Resistance
 Determine Structural Flexural Resistance
 Determine Structural Combined Axial & Flexural Resistance
 Determine Structural Shear Resistance
 Determine method for pile driving acceptance criteria
 Determine Resistance Factor for Geotechnical Resistance () and Driving Resistance ().
 If other than end bearing pile on rock or shale, determine Nominal Axial Geotechnical Resistance for pile.
 Determine Factored Axial Geotechnical Resistance for single pile.
 Determine Nominal pullout resistance if pile uplift reactions exist.
 Check for pile group effects.
 Resistance of Pile Groups in Compression
 Check Drivability of all pile (bearing and friction pile) using the Wave equation analysis.
 Review Static Pile Soil Interaction Analysis and pile lengths for friction pile.
 Show proper Pile Data on Plan Sheets (Foundation Data Table).
751.36.5.2 Structural Resistance Factor (ϕ_{c} and ϕ_{f}) for Strength Limit State
LRFD 6.5.4.2 
For integral end bent simple pile design, use Φ_{c} = 0.35 for CIP steel pipe piles and HP piles. See Figure 751.35.2.4.2.
For pile at all locations where integral end bent simple pile design is not applicable, use the following:
 The structural resistance factor for axial resistance in compression is dependent upon the expected driving conditions. When the pile is subject to damage due to severe driving conditions where use of pile point reinforcement is necessary:
 Steel Shells (Pipe): = 0.60
 HP Piles: = 0.50
 When the pile is subject to good driving conditions where use of pile point reinforcement is not necessary:
 Steel Shells (Pipe) Piles: = 0.70
 HP Piles: = 0.60
 For HP piles, pile point reinforcement is always required when HP piles are anticipated to be driven to rock and proofed. Driving HP piles to rock is considered severe driving conditions for determination of structural resistance factor. However, driving HP piles through overburden not likely to impede driving to deep rock or preboring to rock for setting piles are two situations that could be considered as less than severe. Further, driving any steel pile through soil without rubble, boulders, cobbles or very dense gravel could be considered good driving conditions for determination of structural resistance factor. Consult the Structural Project Manager or Structural Liaison Engineer.
 The structural resistance factor for combined axial and flexural resistance of undamaged piles:
 Axial resistance factor for HP Piles: = 0.70
 Axial resistance for Steel Shells (Pipe): = 0.80
 Flexural resistance factor for HP Piles or Steel Shells: = 1.00
 The structural resistance factor for combined axial and flexural resistance of undamaged piles:
 For Extreme Event Limit States, see LRFD 10.5.5.3.
751.36.5.3 Geotechnical Resistance Factor (ϕ_{stat}) and Driving Resistance Factor (ϕ_{dyn})
LRFD Table 10.5.5.2.31 
The factors for Geotechnical Resistance () and Driving Resistance () will usually be different because of the different methods used to determine the nominal bearing resistance. Caution should be used if the difference in factors for Geotechnical Resistance and Driving Resistance are great as it can lead to issues with pile overruns. Also see EPG 751.36.5.9.
Geotechnical Resistance Factor, :
The Geotechnical Resistance factor is based on the static method used by the designer in determining the nominal bearing resistance. Unlike the Driving Resistance factor the Geotechnical Resistance factor can vary with the soil layers. If Geotechnical Resistance factors are not provided by the Geotechnical Engineer, values may be selected from LRFD Table 10.5.5.2.31. For Extreme Event Limit States see LRFD 10.5.5.3.
Driving Resistance Factor, :
The Driving Resistance factor shall be selected from LRFD Table 10.5.5.2.31 based on the method to be used in the field during construction to verify nominal axial compressive resistance.
Method  Resistance Factor, 

FHWAmodified Gates Dynamic Pile Formula (End of Drive condition only) 
0.40 
Wave Equation Analysis  0.50 
Dynamic Testing on 1 to 10% piles  0.65 
Other methods  Refer to LRFD Table 10.5.5.2.31 
Use EPG 751.50 Standard Detailing Note G7.3 on plans as required. This requirement shall apply to any type of rock meaning weak to strong rock including stronger shales where HP piling is anticipated to meet refusal.
FHWAmodified Gates Dynamic Pile Formula is not considered accurate for pile loading (Minimum Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance) exceeding 600 kips. When pile loading exceeds 600 kips, use wave equation analysis, dynamic testing or other method.
Dynamic Testing is recommended for projects with friction piles.
751.36.5.4 Downdrag and Losses to Geotechnical Resistance due to Scour and Liquefaction
Downdrag and Losses to Geotechnical Resistance due to Scour and Liquefaction (kips), LRFD 10.7.3.6, 10.7.3.7, and AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design (SGS) 6.8.
Downdrag, liquefaction and scour all reduce the available skin friction capacity of piles. Downdrag is unique because it not only causes a loss of capacity, but also applies a downward force to the piles. This is usually attributed to embankment settlement. However, downdrag can also be caused by a nonliquefied layer overlying a liquefied layer. Review geotechnical report for downdrag and liquefaction information.
751.36.5.5 Preliminary Structural Nominal Axial Design Capacity (PNDC) of an individual pile
The PNDC equations provided herein assume the piles are continually braced. This assumption is applicable for the portion of piling below ground or confined by solid wall encasement. If designing a pile bent structure, scour exists or liquefaction exists, then the pile shall be checked considering the appropriate unbraced length.
Structural Steel HP Piles
 Since we are assuming the piles are continuously braced, then = 0.
is the yield strength of the pile is the area of the steel pile
Welded or Seamless Steel Shell (Pipe) CastInPlace Piles (CIP Piles)
is the yield strength of the pipe pile is the area of the steel pipe (deducting 12.5 % ASTM tolerance and 1/16 inch corrosion where appropriate.) is the concrete compressive strength at 28 days is the area of the concrete inside the pipe pile
 Maximum Load during pile driving =
Welded or Seamless Steel Shell shall be ASTM 252 Grade 3 (45 ksi). ASTM 252 states “the wall thickness at any point shall not be more than 12.5% under the specified nominal wall thickness.” AASHTO recommends deducting 1/16” of the wall thickness due to corrosion (LRFD 5.13.4.5.2). Corrosion need not be considered at construction stage and for drivability analysis and static analysis. For drivability analysis and static analysis deduct 12.5% of specified nominal wall thickness (ASTM A252). For structural design deduct 12.5 % (ASTM A252) and 1/16” for corrosion (LRFD 5.13.4.5.2) from specified nominal wall thickness.
751.36.5.6 Preliminary Factored Axial Design Capacity (PFDC) of an Individual Pile
 PFDC = Structural Factored Axial Compressive Resistance – Factored Downdrag Load
751.36.5.7 Design Values for Steel Pile
751.36.5.7.1 Integral End Bent Simple Pile Design
The following design values may be used for integral end bents where the simple pile design method is applicable per EPG 751.35.2.4.2 Pile Design. These values are not applicable for soils subject to liquefaction or scour where unbraced lengths may alter the design.
751.36.5.7.1.1 Design Values for Individual HP Pile
F_{y} = 50 ksi. End Bearing Piles (HP piles) anticipated to be driven to rock.
Pile Size  A_{s} Area, sq. in. 
Structural Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance PNDC^{1,2}, kips 
Φ_{c} Structural Resistance Factor^{4,5}, LRFD 6.5.4.2 
Structural Factored Axial Compressive Resistance^{2,3,4}, kips 
0.9*ϕ_{da}*F_{y} Maximum Nominal Driving Stress, LRFD 10.7.8, ksi 

HP 12x53  15.5  775  0.35  271  45.00 
HP 14x73  21.4  1070  0.35  375  45.00 
^{1} Structural Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance for fully embedded piles only. Minimum Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance = Required nominal driving resistance, R_{ndr} = (Maximum factored axial loads / ϕ_{dyn}) ≤ Structural nominal axial compressive resistance, PNDC LRFD 10.5.5.2.3 ^{2} Axial Compressive Resistance values shown above shall be reduced when downdrag is considered.

751.36.5.7.1.2 Design Values for Individual CastInPlace (CIP) Pile
Grade 3 F_{y} = 45 ksi; F'_{c} = 4 ksi; Structural Axial Compressive Resistance Factor, (Φ_{c})^{1,3} = 0.35
Unfilled Pipe For Axial Analysis^{2}  

Pile Outside Diameter O.D., in.  Pile Inside Diameter I.D., in.  Minimum Wall Thickness, in.  Reduced Wall thick. for Fabrication (ASTM 252), in.  A_{s},^{4} Area of Steel Pipe, sq. in. 
Structural Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance P_{n}^{5,6,7}, kips 
Structural Factored Axial Compressive Resistance^{1,7,8}, kips 
0.9*ϕ_{da}*F_{y}*A_{s} Maximum Nominal Driving Resistance^{6}, LRFD 10.7.8, kips 
14  13  0.5  0.44  18.47  831  291  748 
12.75  0.625^{9}  0.55  22.84  1028  360  925  
16  15  0.5  0.44  21.22  955  334  859 
14.75  0.625^{9}  0.55  26.28  1183  414  1064  
^{1}Values are applicable for Strength Limit States. ^{2} Use to determine preliminary number of pile and pile size. For piles predominantly embedded and tipped in cohesionless soils the maximum loads provided in EPG 751.36.5.10 will control. ^{3} Use (Φ_{c}) = 0.35 instead of 0.6 for structural axial compressive resistance factor (LRFD 6.5.4.2). Since ϕ_{dyn} >> Φ_{c} the maximum nominal driving resistance may not control. ^{4} Corrosion NOT considered at construction stage and for drivability analysis and static analysis. For drivability analysis and static analysis use reduced pipe nominal wall thickness, 12.5%, for fabrication (ASTM A252). ^{5} Structural Nominal Axial compressive resistance for fully embedded piles only. ^{6} Minimum Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance = Required nominal driving resistance, R_{ndr} = Maximum factored axial loads / ϕ_{dyn} ≤ Structural nominal axial compressive resistance, P_{n} and LRFD 10.5.5.2.3 ≤ Maximum nominal driving resistance. ^{7} Axial Compressive Resistance values shown above shall be reduced when downdrag is considered. ^{8} Maximum factored axial load per pile ≤ Structural factored axial compressive resistance ^{9} 5/8” wall thickness is less commonly available than the smaller wall thicknesses of pipe pile. Notes: Drivability analysis shall be performed for all CIP piles (unfilled pipe) using Delmag D1942 and Delmag D3023 (Heavy Hammer). Do not show minimum hammer energy on plans. Check drivability for all CIP Pile in accordance with EPG 751.36.5.11. Require dynamic pile testing for field verification for all CIP piles on the plans. ϕ_{dyn} = 0.65 = Dynamic Testing resistance factor to be used to estimate nominal pile resistance during pile installation. This value may be increased if static load testing is specified per LRFD Table 10.5.5.2.31. For additional design requirements, see EPG 751.36.5.1. 
751.36.5.7.2 General Pile Design
The following design values are recommended for general use where the simple pile design method is not applicable per EPG 751.35.2.4.2 Pile Design. These values are not applicable for soils subject to liquefaction or scour where unbraced lengths may alter the design.
751.36.5.7.2.1 Design Values for Individual HP Pile
F_{y} = 50 ksi. End Bearing Piles (HP piles) anticipated to be driven to rock.
Pile Size  A_{s} Area, sq. in. 
Structural Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance PNDC^{1,2}, kips 
Φ_{c} Structural Resistance Factor^{4}, LRFD 6.5.4.2 
Structural Factored Axial Compressive Resistance^{2,3,4}, kips 
0.9*ϕ_{da}*F_{y} Maximum Nominal Driving Stress, LRFD 10.7.8, ksi 

HP 12x53  15.5  775  0.5  388  45.00 
HP 14x73  21.4  1070  0.5  535  45.00 
^{1} Structural Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance for fully embedded piles only. Structural Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance for unsupported piles shall be determined in accordance with LRFD 10.7.3.13.1. (i.e., intermediate pile cap bent). Minimum Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance = Required nominal driving resistance, R_{ndr} = (Maximum factored axial loads / ϕ_{dyn}) ≤ Structural nominal axial compressive resistance, PNDC LRFD 10.5.5.2.3 ^{2} Axial Compressive Resistance values shown above shall be reduced when downdrag is considered.

751.36.5.7.2.2 Design Values for Individual CastInPlace (CIP) Pile
Grade 3 F_{y} = 45 ksi; F'_{c} = 4 ksi; Structural Resistance Factor, (Φ_{c})^{1} = 0.6
Unfilled Pipe For Axial Analysis^{2}  Concrete Filled Pipe For Flexural Analysis^{3}  

Pile Outside Diameter O.D., in.  Pile Inside Diameter I.D., in.  Minimum Wall Thickness, in. 
Reduced Wall thick. for Fabrication (ASTM 252), in. 
A_{s},^{4} Area of Steel Pipe, sq. in. 
Structural Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance, P_{n}^{5,6,7}, kips 
Structural Factored Axial Compressive Resistance^{1,7,8}, kips 
0.9*ϕ_{da}*F_{y}*A_{s} Maximum Nominal Driving Resistance^{5,6}, LRFD 10.7.8, kips 
Reduced Wall Thick. for Corrosion (1/16"), LRFD 5.13.4.5.2, in. 
A_{st},^{9} Net Area of Steel Pipe, sq. in. 
A_{c} Concrete Area, sq. in. 
Structural Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance PNDC^{5,7,10}, kips 
Structural Factored Axial Compressive Resistance^{1,7,10}, kips 
14  13  0.5  0.44  18.47  831  499  748  0.375  15.76  133  1160  696 
12.75  0.625^{11}  0.55  22.84  1028  617  925  0.484  20.14  128  1340  804  
16  15  0.5  0.44  21.22  955  573  859  0.375  18.11  177  1416  850 
14.75  0.625^{11}  0.55  26.28  1183  710  1064  0.484  23.18  171  1624  975  
20  19  0.5  0.44  26.72  1202  721  1082  0.375  22.83  284  1991  1195 
18.75  0.625  0.55  33.15  1492  895  1343  0.484  29.27  276  2256  1354  
24  23  0.5  0.44  32.21  1450  870  1305  0.375  27.54  415  2652  1591 
22.75  0.625  0.55  40.03  1801  1081  1621  0.484  35.36  406  2973  1784  
22.5  0.75  0.66  47.74  2148  1289  1933  0.594  43.08  398  3290  1974  
^{1} Values are applicable for Strength Limit States. Modify value for other Limit States.

751.36.5.8 Additional Provisions for Pile Cap Footings
Pile Group Layout:
P_{u} = Total Factored Vertical Load.
Preliminary Number of Piles Required =
Layout a pile group that will satisfy the preliminary number of piles required. Calculate the maximum and minimum factored load applied to the outside corner piles assuming the pile cap/footing is perfectly rigid. The general equation is as follows:
Max. Load =
Min. Load =
The maximum factored load per pile must be less than or equal to PFDC for the pile type and size chosen. If not, the pile size must be increased or additional piles must be added to the pile group. Reanalyze until the pile type, size and layout are satisfactory.
Pile Uplift on End Bearing Piles and Friction Piles:
 Service  I Limit State:
 Minimum factored load per pile shall be ≥ 0.
 Tension on a pile is not allowed for conventional bridges.
 Strength and Extreme Event Limit States:
 Uplift on a pile is not preferred for conventional bridges.
 Maximum Pile Uplift load = │Minimum factored load per pile│  │Factored pile uplift resistance│ ≥ 0^{1}
 Note: Compute maximum pile uplift load if value of minimum factored load is negative.
 ^{1} The minimum factored load (maximum tensile load) per pile should preferably not result in uplift for the Strength and Extreme Event Limit States. Pile uplift for the Strength and Extreme Event limit states may be permitted by SPM or SLE based on infrequent uplift load cases and small magnitudes of uplift. This decision is based on the presumed difficulty of a pile cap footing to rotate, specifically for it to be able to rotate on piles driven to rock. When pile uplift is allowed, the necessity of top pile cap reinforcement shall be investigated and the standard anchorage detail for HP pile per EPG 751.36.4.1 Structural Steel HP Pile  Details shall be used.
Resistance of Pile Groups in Compression LRFD 10.7.3.9
If the cap is not in firm contact with the ground and if the soil at the surface is soft, the individual nominal resistance of each pile (751.36.5.5) shall be multiplied by an efficiency factor, , based on pile spacing.
751.36.5.9 Estimate Pile Length and Check Pile Capacity
751.36.5.9.1 Estimated Pile Length
Friction Piles:
Estimate the pile length required to achieve the minimum nominal axial compressive resistance, R_{ndr}, for establishment of contract pile quantities. Perform a static analysis to determine the nominal resistance profile of the soil. For each soil layer the appropriate resistance factor, ϕ_{stat}, shall be applied to account for the reliability of the static analysis method chosen in order to create a factored resistance profile. The penetration depth would then occur at the location where the factored resistance profile intercepts the factored load. Similarly, for a uniform soil layer the adjusted nominal resistance, R_{nstat}, can be determined from the equation below.
ϕ_{dyn} x R_{ndr} = ϕ_{stat} x R_{nstat} ≥ Factored Load LRFD C10.7.3.31
Where:
 ϕ_{dyn} = see EPG.751.36.5.3
 R_{ndr} = Minimum nominal axial compressive resistance = Required nominal driving resistance
 ϕ_{stat} = Static analysis resistance factor per LRFD Table 10.5.5.2.31 or as provided by the Geotechnical Engineer. Factors for side friction and end bearing may be different.
 R_{nstat} = Adjusted Nominal resistance due to static analysis reliability
Use soil profiles from borings and mimic soil characteristics as closely as possible in computations or software to calculate the geotechnical resistance and for estimating the length of pile.
It is not advisable to design pile deeper than available borings or to reach capacity within the bottom 3 to 5 feet of borings. If a longer pile depth is needed to meet design requirements then request Geotechnical Section to provide deeper borings or increase the number of piles which will reduce load per pile as well as the required pile length.
For friction pile the top five feet of soil friction resistance may be neglected with SPM or SLE approval for possible disturbance from MSE wall excavation prior to driving pile.
End Bearing Piles:
The estimated pile length is the distance along the pile from the cutoff elevation to the estimated tip elevation considering any penetration into rock. The estimated tip elevation shall not be shown on plans for end bearing piles.
The geotechnical material above the estimated end bearing tip elevation shall be reviewed for the presence of glacial till or similar layers. If these layers are present, then a static analysis shall be performed to verify if the required pile resistance is reached at a higher elevation due to pile friction capacity.
751.36.5.9.2 Check Pile Geotechnical Capacity (Axial Loads Only)
Use the same methodology outlined in EPG 751.36.5.9.1 Estimated Pile Length.
751.36.5.9.3 Check Pile Structural Capacity (Combined Axial and Bending)
Structural design checks which include lateral loading and bending shall be accomplished using the appropriate structural resistance factors.
751.36.5.10 Pile Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance
The minimum nominal axial compressive resistance, R_{ndr}, must be calculated and shown on the final plans. The factored axial compressive resistance will be used to verify the pile group layout and loading. The minimum nominal axial compressive resistance will be used in construction field verification methods to obtain the required nominal driving resistance.
 Minimum Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance = Required Nominal Driving Resistance, R_{ndr}
 = Maximum factored axial loads/ϕ_{dyn}
 ϕ_{dyn} = Resistance factor of the dynamic method to be used to estimate nominal pile resistance during pile installation. LRFD 10.5.5.2.3.1
The value of R_{ndr} shown on the plans shall be the greater of the value required at the Strength limit state and Extreme Event limit state. This value shall not be greater than the structural nominal axial compressive resistance of the steel HP pile nor shall it exceed the maximum nominal driving resistance of the steel shell for CIP piles. See EPG 751.36.5.5. LRFD 10.7.7
For friction piles predominantly embedded and tipped in cohesionless soils the minimum nominal axial compressive resistance should be limited to the values shown in the following table. Please seek approval from the SPM or SLE before exceeding the limits provided.
Pile Type  Minimum Nominal Axial Compressive Resistance (R_{ndr})^{1} (kips) 
Maximum Factored Axial Load (kips)  

Dynamic Testing  Wave Equation Analysis 
FHWAmodified Gates Dynamic Pile Formula  
ϕ_{dyn}= 0.65  ϕ_{dyn} = 0.50  ϕ_{dyn} = 0.40  
CIP 14”  210  136  105  84 
CIP 16”  240  156  120  96 
CIP 20”  300  195  150  120 
CIP 24”  340  221  170  136 
^{1} The minimum nominal axial compressive resistance values are correlated to match the maximum design tonnage values used in past ASD practice. A factor of safety of 3.5 is used to determine the equivalent R_{ndr}. 
751.36.5.11 Check Pile Drivability
Drivability of the pile through the soil profile can be investigated using Wave equation analysis program or other available software. Designers may import soil resistances from a static analysis program or input soil values directly into Wave equation analysis program to perform drivability.
If soil values are to be directly input into Wave equation analysis program, enter in values of sand and clay layers with specific values of cohesion or internal friction angle or just by uncorrected blow count values obtained from borings.
Drivability analysis shall be performed for all piles (bearing pile and friction pile) using the Delmag D1942 hammer and the Delmag D3032 – Heavy Hammer.
Use soil profiles from borings and mimic soil characteristics as closely as possible for computations or in software to perform drivability analysis of any kind of pile.
Structural steel HP Pile:
Drivability analysis shall be performed for two cases:
 1. Box shape
 2. Perimeter
Drivability shall be performed considering existing condition without considering any excavation/ disturbance (i.e., possible disturbance to top 5 feet of soil from MSE wall excavation prior to driving pile), liquefaction or future scour loss.
Hammer types:
Hammer used in the field per survey response (2017)  

GRLWEAP ID  Hammer name  No. of Responses 
41  Delmag D1942^{1}  13 
40  Delmag D1932  6 
38  Delmag D1242  4 
139  ICE 32S  4 
15  Delmag D3032  2 
Delmag D2532  2  
127  ICE 30S  1 
150  MKT DE30B  1 
^{1} Delmag series of pile hammers is the most popular, with the D1942 being the most widely used. 
Hammer usage in the field will be surveyed every five years. The above results will be revised according to the new survey and the most widely used hammer will be selected for drivability analysis.
The contractor is responsible for determining the hammer energy required to successfully drive the pile to the minimum tip elevation and to reach the minimum nominal axial compressive resistance specified on the plans. The contractor shall perform a drivability analysis to select an appropriate hammer size to ensure the pile can be driven without overstressing the pile and to prevent refusal of the pile prior to reaching the minimum tip elevation. The contractor shall plan pile driving activities and submit hammer energy requirements to the engineer for approval before driving.
Practical refusal is defined at 20 blows/inch or 240 blows per foot.
Driving should be terminated immediately once 30 blows/inch is encountered.
Nominal Driving Stress LRFD 10.7.8
 Nominal driving stress ≤ 0.9*ϕ_{da}*F_{y}
 For structural steel HP pile, Maximum nominal driving stress = 45 ksi
 For CIP pile, Maximum nominal driving resistance, see EPG 751.36.5.7.1.2 or EPG 751.36.5.7.2.2 (unfilled pipe for axial analysis).
If analysis indicates the piles do not have sufficient structural or geotechnical strength or drivability issues exist then consider increasing the number of piles.
751.36.5.12 Information to be Included on the Plans
See EPG 751.50 A1 Design Specifications, Loadings & Unit Stresses for appropriate design stresses to be included in the general notes.
See EPG 751.50 E2 Foundation Data Table for appropriate data to be included in the foundation data table for HP pile and CIP pile and any additional notes required below the table. See Bridge Standard Drawings “Pile” for CIP data table.