Pharmacogenomics is a relatively young biomedical science that introduces a newly emerging, genetic-based, discipline in therapeutics. It was introduced to impact and revolutionize the practice of pharmacy. This novel biomedical science focuses on individual genetic variations and illustrates several challenges regarding the clinical integration of the role of genetic diversity into health and disease states. The primary focus of pharmacogenomics is to study the effect of genetic makeup and racial differences on drug response, adverse effects, and pharmacokinetics. It also offers the opportunity of designing new therapeutic options and new methods of using pre-existing drugs.